A Home For Ace

A Home For Ace

Every morning an hour before sunrise, Ace turns off his alarm and makes a pot of coffee. He washes from a pail of rainwater he has collected. He holds a shirt up to his nose and inhales deeply.

“It’s clean,” he says with a bright smile.

Ace runs down a path to catch a 5:20 a.m. bus to East Bay where he begins his 12 to 15 hour workday at one of his three jobs. In the afternoon he takes another bus to Alameda where he cares for a disabled homebound veteran. When he is relieved from home care duties, he works as a night watchman every other evening. After a long hard day Ace can’t wait to get home again. But for Ace, home is a tent.

“It’s gonna be a long day tomorrow,” he says and with a wink adds, “But worth it.”

Ace has a rather unique living situation in a tent, with a sleeping bag for a bed and a hope for a better tomorrow.

This time tomorrow is different. Tomorrow Ace signs a lease on his own apartment, a goal that has taken him three years to reach.

“It’s real hard,” Ace says. “Especially at my age.”

Ace just turned 50 when his girlfriend of five years cleaned out his bank account and took off with another man.

“I hit what I thought was bottom,” he says.

Ace didn’t handle the split well and took his troubles to the bar.

“I got so loaded, I missed work for four days and I guess the office didn’t like that because they fired me,” Ace says.

Ace slipped into depression and started drinking more as a means of self-medication to deaden the pain he felt from his heartbreak. Soon days turned into weeks that turned into months. His car was repossessed. The utilities shut off in his home. One day he came home to find he was locked out. A huge notice on the door, he had been evicted. All of his possessions were taken out to the street early in the morning and by the time he arrived home, there was hardly anything left but a few articles of clothing and a couple of personal items.

“At least I’ve got this,” Ace says pointing to a photo album – the only remains to show of the life he once lived.

Ace grew up in San Rafael, went to San Rafael High School and later graduated from University of California, Berkeley with honors. Though he traveled the world, he found nothing as beautiful as the Bay Area and bought a house off Jewel Street in San Rafael.

“I knew I wanted to live the rest of my life here,” Ace says.

Ace sunk into a deep depression after his girlfriend left. He didn’t answer the door, pick up the phone or open the mail for almost a full year. He had no idea he was on the verge of losing everything.

“But I really didn’t lose everything,” Ace says pointing to his head. “I’ve still got my mind, sharp as a tack.”

When Ace found himself suddenly without a home he finally touched bottom and realized too late this new life as homeless wasn’t for him. He had no idea where to go and what to do. He needed a place to stay, it was November and it was cold.

“I spent that first night just walking around thinking, feeling sorry for myself and then it dawned on me: I did this,” Ace says. “And if I did this to myself, I can un-do it and get myself out.”

But getting back up is not as easy as going down. Once he was without a home he was treated differently.

“Everyone judges you as a bad person, I’ve made some poor choices in my life, but I’m not a bad person,” he says.

Ace decided he had to turn his life around but first he was hungry. While he wandered through downtown San Rafael streets, he found a free warm lunch served at St. Vincent de Paul on B Street where he met people in the same housing predicament.

“I remember when Ace first walked in, he was alone, bewildered and confused,” Robert Singler the dining room manager says. “But at least he found his way in here and he left with a full stomach and bunch of new friends who understood his frustration.”

Steve Boyer, executive director of the St. Vincent de Paul Society of Marin, who noted hot lunches served at the agency’s San Rafael dining hall remain high — an average of 325 meals daily and climbing, up from an average 243 daily in 2011. Last year, the society helped more than 16,000 people in the community, offering assistance in the form of free hot meals, rental deposits, utility assistance, social service referrals, and other vital needs.

“We haven’t seen a recovery in the economy from our perspective,” Boyer said, adding that the county’s jobless situation “hasn’t impacted the people we serve at all.

Many of the friends Ace made were also homeless who would rely on friends and family to keep them off the streets. Others played a daily game of housing roulette or finding a bed available in very limited shelter space. The county is 85 percent open space and many camp in the hills surrounding San Rafael and Mount Tamalpais. Some sleep in parks while others live in their cars and an adventurous few anchor out in Richardson Bay off Sausalito.

“Sleeping on a boat is not as glamorous as it sounds, often it was one of the only ways to stay safe,” Ace says.

In his three years spent homeless, Ace found living in a tent alone secluded far up in the hills was the safest way to live. Many nights he wouldn’t sleep for fear he would be beaten in his sleep or even killed for being without a door and lock for protection.

“I learned to not stand out and made myself real busy working and saving so I could get back on my feet again,” Ace says.

While Ace was able to find work, other people without a home didn’t have such an easy time finding jobs available to them.

“I was able to use the phone and mailbox at Ritter Center,” Ace says. The center gave him a leg up towards obtaining work quickly.

The Ritter Center in San Rafael, helps handle a workload of 3,700 impoverished, homeless, jobless or otherwise out-of-luck clients who depend on the center for a helping hand with clothing, food, employment, housing, laundry and related services.

“People are either losing their jobs or having their hours cut back and need our services,” says Ben Leroi deputy director of the center.

Homelessness is not a new phenomenon to the U.S., California or even a small city like San Rafael. Since the colonial times, homeless people have been present in America. Despite its image as an affluent enclave, Marin is not immune to the persistent problem of homeless residents and since San Rafael is the county seat with an urban setting, it’s not surprising to find a lion’s share of the population according to Leroi.

“Most of our clients are from Marin and grew up here in San Rafael,” Leroi says.

Based on the most recent one-day count taken by the county, the estimated homeless falls somewhere between 1,770 and 6,000 where at least 1,500 are children Marin school officials say.

The problem in Marin is compounded by overpriced housing and land costs along with the lack of low-income housing. People that fill the jobs of the services that are provided in Marin do not get paid enough to live and work in Marin according to Leroi.

According to the Marin Department of Health and Human Services, the income required for a family of three to attain self-sufficiency is $68,800 annually.

“For those without a job, it remains a stark world indeed,” agreed Thomas Peters, CEO of the Marin Community Foundation. “That’s why the foundation is redoubling its efforts to support individuals and local agencies seeking to close the gap between available jobs and marketable skills.”

“Poverty and homeless are closely linked. There are many reasons why a family or individual like Ace become homeless. However, the primary contribution to homelessness is affordable housing,” says Larry Meredith, director of Marin Department of Health and Human Services.

According to American Community Survey Census data 6.4 percent of Marin’s population was estimated to live below 100 percent of the Federal Poverty Level.

“When households lack income to provide for basic needs, they are forced to choose between housing costs, childcare, healthcare and food. Many households don’t make enough to provide for housing stability,” Meredith says.

“You must earn over $35 an hour full-time to afford an average two bedroom apartment in San Rafael,” Leroi says.

A few weeks ago, Ace turned 54 and finally reached his goal: he managed to save up enough money to put down a deposit and pay six months of rent in advance.

“It’s real hard to depend on the kindness of strangers,” Ace says. “Humbling. Real hard and oh-so-humbling.”

Tomorrow night will be the first time in three years in his own bed, in his own place with a real roof over his head.

“I won’t go back to the homeless life again. It’s a cycle that sucks you in like a deadly whirlpool, I’m just glad I didn’t drown,” Ace says.





9 Dead in #Charleston #Shooting

9 Dead in #Charleston #Shooting

Democratic Presidential Candidate Hillary Clinton 1/2 Mile Away

Housing Unattainable in US for $15/hr Wages

Housing Unattainable in US for $15/hr Wages

There are over 121 million workers in the US as of May 2015 according to Statista. With an average income of $53,000 a year according to CNN Money, then the average worker makes $25.36 an hour and could not afford to live in Hawaii, District of Columbia, California or New York.


Monday, June 15, 2015, a newly released report, Out of Reach, from National Low Income Housing Coalition shows the minimum wage needed to earn and afford a two-bedroom apartment in each state. Typically expensive housing wage was found in Hawaii, California and New York show individuals need to earl more than $25 per hour to afford a two bedroom.


Considering the ongoing rebel cry to raise wages to $15 an hour that is roughly $30,000 a year. The report further finds that many people would have to work 2 to 3 full-time minimum wage jobs in order to afford a one-bedroom apartment.


The jobs are in the city but the housing is outrageous. Low income individuals are being forced out to the suburbs or pay more than half or all of their income on housing costs. Ultimately the commute and wear and tear cost more than increased housing and time loss in traffic.

The entire report puts into sharp perspective the ultimate cost of rising housing across our nation has become a harsh economic reality.

National Low Income Housing Coalition
Out of Reach report link:  http://nlihc.org/sites/default/files/oor/OOR_2015_FULL.pdf


The Perfect Kiss

The Perfect Kiss


Part of a package spread for Valentine’s Day, including a piece like the piece below for online. 

The Rice Irwin Kiss vs. Jaco Van Dormael

A kiss is when the lips touch with the lips or other body parts of another person or object. This simple act can convey a wide range of emotions depending on the cultural connotations and context. Ernest Crawley, an anthropological writer, who studied the origins of the kiss in the early 20th century, said a kiss was “a universal expression in the social life of the higher civilizations of the feelings of affection, love and veneration.”[1] The culture, relationship and context interpret the different social significance of the gesture. Compare the short 1896 film The Rice/Irwin Kiss directed by William Heise to Kiss directed by Jaco Van Dormael in 1995. While the kiss performed in these two films appears to be similar, the analysis of film form, mise-en-scene and cinematography actually show they are very different.

A film’s explicit or implicit meaning bear the social values or symptomatic meaning and reveals a social ideology.[2] The invention of the Vitascope provided the first public theatrical exhibition of film and also the first onscreen kiss. The performance by May Irwin and John Rice in 1896 was a re-enactment of a scene in the Broadway musical, “The Widow Jones” made specifically for the Vitascope. The kiss lasts less than a minute, yet in the society at that time, the film was met with severe disapproval by defenders of public morality. This clearly shows how a work can disturb our normal expectations gathered from our culture. in 1896 American society, a kiss was an intimate act performed in private therefore Heise disturbed the expectation, which left some viewers disoriented and unable to engage in the film’s form.

In comparison, the Lumiere brothers invented a multifunctional device that served as a camera, film processor and projector, patented in 1895 as the Cinematographe. In honor of the 100th anniversary, 40 directors around the world were invited to use the device to create a short film with no synchronous sound, 52-second duration and only three takes. Jaco Van Dormael, a Belgian film director, known for the respectful and sympathetic portrayal of mental and physical disabilities, rose to the challenge. At the time, Dormael was in production on a film, The Eighth Day (Dormael, 1996), with actors who have Down syndrome, who also appear in his 52-second short film Kiss (1995). While the use of actors with visible disabilities is outside the normative paradigm, the film is not found to be disturbing but rather sweet and endearing to most viewers.

Another area of comparison, mise-en-scene, used to achieve realism, gives the setting an authentic look or letting actors perform as naturally as possible.[3] The setting for Rice/Irwin Kiss is a black backdrop with no other movement to distract from the two actors while Van Dormael placed his actors in front of a light-colored public building that operated as both a way to highlight his actors and to emphasize placement. The people in the background provide additional movement within the shot and the setting dynamically enters the narrative action. Our tendency to notice visual difference is strongly aroused when the image includes movement.[4] The lighter and darker areas with the frame help create the overall composition of each shot and guide our attention to certain objects and actions. The blown-out brightly illuminated clothing of the woman in the Rice/Irwin Kiss draws the eye to a key gesture, while a shadows articulate textures: the curve of a face, the twist of the mustache and the grasp of a hand.

The action of Rice/Irwin Kiss appears as though the actors are having a conversation more than in the act of a kiss. Both heads are held together and almost nuzzle each other affectionately until the climatic end when the man in a grand gesture leans back twists the ends of his mustache and they both lean in for the kiss at which time the man presses his hands on the woman’s cheeks to draw her in deep and close. Van Dormael has the actors break the fourth wall and look directly into the camera with a slight smile, then turn and face each other with a smile they lean in and gently kiss. The initial kiss stops and only the top of their foreheads touch, eyes closed as if to savor the moment, each lost in a dreamy smile of passion. Then she begins to nuzzle him and rests her head on his shoulder, returns her lips to his and the kiss becomes more passionate, involving both to use hands and arms freely to caress the other. While both films contribute to only the visual aspects the acting style of Van Dormael seemed natural and spontaneous.

Rice/Irwin Kiss distributes various points of interest evenly around the frame in bilateral symmetry while Van Dormael’s male actor dominates the screen and the female is only in one fourth of the frame. The higher-contrast of Rice/Irwin Kiss seems to strive for a middle range of contrast that consists of pure blacks, pure whites, and a large range in between grays. Whereas Van Dormael’s use of lower-contrast displays many intermediate grays with no true white or black areas. Still our attention is guided by the use of contrast. Light costumes and brightly lit faces stand out while darker areas tend to recede as in the black background of Rice/Irwin Kiss. But in Van Dormael short film the use of a light background predominantly displays the dark elements such as the hair color of both actors. The high contrast images can seem stark and dramatic, while low-contrast ones suggest more muted emotional states.[5]

Despite the changes in our culture over 100 years, The Rice/Irwin Kiss continues to agitate the viewer’s expectations due mostly to the attractiveness of the couple whereas Van Dormael’s Kiss using two Down syndrome actors summons a sweet sincerity that allows the viewer to accept the action as normal. The mise-en-scene limited to the actors in The Rice/Irwin Kiss punctuates the performance while Van Dormael’s setting adds an element of distraction. The high-contrast of The Rice/Irwin Kiss lends to the drama while the low-contrast of Van Dormael’s portrays a softer emotion. Upon first view both films seem to be very similar: a man and woman embraced in a kiss filmed in black and white but with particular attention given to the form, mise-en-scene and cinematography, the complex diversity of each film is shown.

[1] Crawley, Ernest. Studies of Savages and Sex, Kessinger Publishing (revised and reprinted) (2006) Crawley, Ernest. Studies of Savages and Sex, Kessinger Publishing (revised and reprinted) (2006)

[2] Bordwell, David. Thompson, Kristin. Film Art: An Introduction, McGraw Hill (2012) p. 60

[3] Bordwell, David. Thompson, Kristin. Film Art: An Introduction, McGraw Hill (2012) p. 112-113

[4] Bordwell, David. Thompson, Kristin. Film Art: An Introduction, McGraw Hill (2012) p. 144

[5] Bordwell, David. Thompson, Kristin. Film Art: An Introduction, McGraw Hill (2012) p. 144

Link May Irwin Kiss:  https://youtu.be/Q690-IexNB4


Link Van Dormal Kiss: https://youtu.be/cXz_TNZAVFk



Thoughts on Journalism

Thoughts on Journalism

Journalism needs more critical thought in reporting today. People are fed information that is often false and rumors become news. Real stories fleshed out, sourced well and verified for accuracy before they are published. Practice the vital habits of democracy with the ability to follow an argument, grasp another viewpoint, expand the boundaries of understanding and debate the alternative purposes that may be pursued packed into a story for a public audience.

But with so much pressure from advertisers and owners of mass media publications and broadcast to tweak their message to suit their bottom line revenue, where is journalism headed?

In order to see the future, look at the past history of journalism form the introduction of the printing press to the mass production of newspaper and broadcast news to our current electronic communications technology reaching out globally with the click of a button.

Journalism has gone under heavy fire in the recent years with the print newspaper decline, sharp increase in jobs cuts for journalists, budgetary constraints due to lack of subscription dollars and the inability to adapt to a free-news-driven society. Advertising revenues have migrated to online ad placements making it difficult for traditional newspapers to survive.

The first half of 2009, more newspapers closed their doors and circulation dropped even lower forcing those newspapers still running to maximize their current staff in order to compensate the revenue decline. It is time for traditional media to fight in order to stay relevant in the growing digital age by partnering with other social media properties to gain a foothold for the future of journalism.

The hope of the journalists, despite the media form used, will never veer from grabbing the public’s attention to tell a story from beginning, middle to end while holding steadfast to the journalistic ideals with an obligation to the truth and the public’s right to know.

However, my role as a journalist is more than being able to tell a story. As a journalist, my first obligation is to the truth while maintaining a loyalty to the citizens with an essence in discipline of verification. I will sustain an independence from the stories I cover and serve as an impartial monitor of power. I will provide a forum for public criticism and compromise. I will strive to make the significant interesting and relevant while keeping the news comprehensive and proportional. I will exercise my personal conscience while upholding the rights and responsibilities of the citizens.

I do feel the journalism industry will come out ahead once it gains traction with new media. It’s a new and exciting time for journalists since it will be necessary to learn all aspects of reporting the news to become a one-person resource able to provide all the elements of a story to the people.

The unmet needs of tomorrow through text, audio, video and more means a journalist must be the eyes and ears of the community to provide the news people are talking about bringing to light issues that are voiced not only locally but globally. Being able to find the pulse of the public and what the people care about today. Leveraging the collective knowledge of the community to provide the most accurate and trusted information available.

I plan to add to my journalism degree by completing the University of California Los Angeles film masters program, applying for a Fulbright Scholarship and I will become one of the journalism forerunners taking the craft into the new media realms of the future. I will strive to uphold the journalistic ideals and become world renown reliable journalist and Pulitzer Prize winner.

Sybil Exposed

Sybil Exposed



Debbie Nathan, author of Sybil Exposed, wrote a persuasive argument that the 1973 best selling biography of multiple personalities was nothing more than a work of fiction.

Sybil Exposed
by Elisa Forsgren
May 2, 2012

A journalist is a nonfiction writer. A nonfiction writer has a responsibility to provide her readers with the absolute truth. Readers invest a certain amount of trust to a nonfiction writer. Journalist Flora Schreiber apparently found no obligation or veracity due to more than six million people who purchased her 1973 biography of Sybil, an American woman with 16 personalities. Sybil’s psychiatrist introduced multiple personality disorder as an official diagnosis that led to important results for the medical profession, the insurance industry and patients. While Sybil remains in print decades after its initial publication, journalist Debbie Nathan wrote a persuasive argument with Sybil Exposed that Sybil was conspired by not only the patient, but even perpetuated by the psychoanalyst and the author hungry for fame and fortune.

All three women involved with the creation of Sybil were long dead by the time Nathan stumbled onto Sybil’s real name. The name Sybil Dorset was used to protect Shirley Mason’s real identity. Years after reading Sybil for the first time, Nathan learned the author’s papers were archived at nearby John Jay College and open for public inspection. Upon inspection Nathan was surprised to find the papers revealed that Sybil’s 16 personalities had not just appeared rather they were the direct result of years of rogue intensive drug treatment that violated every ethical standard of practice for mental health practitioners.

Along with the archives, Nathan used the census and other historical records to reconstruct the childhoods, young adulthoods, and experiences as professional women in the 1930s, 1940s, 1950s, and beyond. She successfully tracked down relatives, friends, and colleagues who were still alive. She interviewed people by phone and traveled North America to meet in person and compared the archival material to her discoveries outside of the library that would yield new insight and inquiries. Through her extensive research Nathan found that “Sybil was as much about the conflict between women’s highest hopes and deepest fears as it was about a medical diagnosis.” Nathan “suspected that the frustrations they’d endured as ambitious women in a pre-feminist age, and the struggles they’d mounted regardless, had infused the Sybil story with a weird yet potent appeal for women.”

Mason grew up in a small Minnesota town, the only child of strict Seventh-Day Adventists. She always needed attention and as an only child, and often she received all the attention of her parents, although not always positive. She suffered from physical and emotional illnesses along with OCD tendencies. Mason began treatment in 1945 for five sessions but the therapy was discontinued when her doctor looked for a new job out of state. The two parted ways and Mason actually did well in the nine years she was on her own but her past symptoms returned after moving to New York city in 1954 to attend Columbia Teacher’s College. Dr. Cornelia B. Wilbur, now a Manhattan psychoanalyst, was found again by Mason who booked an appointment hoping for the same positive results.

As a child, Wilbur, smart and charismatic, was hurt by her father’s declaration that she did not possess the intelligence to become a doctor. Still she yearned and longed to be somebody important. And here was Mason, the perfect patient, eager to please her psychiatrist at any cost. Wilbur prescribed Mason a variety of highly addictive drugs: Seconal, Demerol, Edrisal and Daprisal, including several that have now been discredited. One drug, Pentathol, known at the time as a truth serum, is now believed to encourage patients to describe fantasies or experiences that could have never happened. Mason knew her time with the doctor was running out and even though She longed to see more of Wilbur, therapy would soon cease for this garden-variety neurotic. Wilbur had provided all that she could do to help Mason, who developed a romantic crush on her doctor. Mason feared once therapy ended, she would no longer see Wilbur. According to Nathan’s research, Mason’s desires to continue therapy with Wilbur were so great that she fabricated her first personality in order to remain in her care. So one day, Mason showed up for an appointment as Peggy. The following week Wilbur was introduced to Vicky in Mason’s body. Followed by a whole slew of personalities, ironically with the same name Mason had for her childhood dolls as Nathan’s research showed. After these pivotal sessions Wilbur suggested that her patient become the subject of a book.

It was a win-win for both women. Wilbur had found a way to make her mark as a successful doctor with Mason diagnosed as a multiple personality. Mason was relieved to have her condition and now abundant attention from the good doctor she unconditionally loved. Wilbur vowed to cure her patient no matter how much time it took. She would do it in her office, because Mason deserved personalized, loving care, not warehousing in a crowded mental hospital. Wilbur devoted more time, exactly what Mason wanted to achieve.

Nathan found Wilbur had approached Mason’s health problems with a predetermined diagnosis using therapy with extravagant, sadistic use of habit-forming, mind-bending drugs. Wilbur would treat the patient day and night, on weekdays and weekends, inside her office and outside, making house calls and even taking Mason with her to social events and on vacations. She fed Mason, gave her money and paid her rent. After years of this behavior, the according to Nathan, “the two women developed a slavish mutual dependency upon each other.”

Nathan revealed that Wilbur had always thought that she was helping her female patients despite the self-indulgent motives. Wilbur unfailingly pushed them to follow their dream, even though the therapy she used on them was bizarre and required that they become multiple personalities in order to receive her care. Wilbur saw herself as a nurturer, a maternal figure, a modern mother, just what Mason needed from her doctor.

Wilbur needed for her reputation to be fully established by describing her success working with Mason’s MPD case in a book she asked Schreiber to write. Schreiber was a self-aggrandizing spinster who specialized in trashy, made-up, “real-life” women’s magazine stories. Schreiber agreed to author only if the story had a cure for only a happy ending would sell a MPD book. Wilbur guaranteed after a year of therapy Mason would be cured. Mason was told the book proceeds would repay the $30,000 she owed Wilbur in therapy fees. A year passed and Wilbur told Mason “she would simply have to get well” because the book and their friendship depended on it. Ever-willing to her beloved doctor, Mason obliged, faked a seizure and the other personalities never reappeared again.

Schreiber began research on Mason’s life and case history in 1965. Nathan wrote, “very quickly… she discovered problems with the story, problems so profound that she would wonder if she could write a book about Shirley [Mason],” when Schreiber found and read Mason’s five page letter confessing the complete fabrication of all the personalities. Schreiber was sick with the idea the alters were actually a big lie and she was tempted to trash the project. However Schreiber told her friends, colleagues, and all the famous psychiatrists that she was writing Sybil. The author already accepted and spent an advance on the book and was contractually obligated to finish in five months. Schreiber revealed her doubts to Wilbur, who in turn told her patient. Mason insisted to Schreiber she had multiple personalities and she had solid evidence: her high school and college journals, which she then provided to Schreiber. Remarkably the sudden appearance of this solid proof did not tip off the seasoned journalist and yet if Schreiber had used the due diligence of a true investigative reporter, she would have noted the 1941 journals were written in ballpoint pen, which was not in the U.S. until 1945. The journals were fake.

The deceit worked. Schreiber wrote the book and despite her embellished additions she adamantly defended that as a whole, the story was emotionally true regardless of the confusing and even patently false case history details. Schreiber perceived the heroine of her book as the woman in flux. She also struggled to do transformative work during a time of women’s suffrage and change. Sybil was her brass ring, a chance to do serious work of nonfiction and rather than expose Wilbur and Mason when she found the personalities to be fraudulent, Schreiber also contributed to the made-up facts.

Nathan uncovered that if Wilbur were not in the picture Mason still would have struggled in life. Perhaps she would have expressed her feelings into art that could have reached a professional stature rather than languishing years in psychotherapy. The young woman who became Sybil, fell in with a psychiatrist and a journalist, who both voluntarily hitched themselves to what they all knew was a lie and together the three saw their project, a revolutionary book about female mental suffering. They became Sybil Incorporated that made money for a while. The book and medical case changed the course of psychiatry but each individual paid their own price for their sins. Mason had to give up her friends and become a recluse. Schreiber lost control of her success and ran through her fortune and reputation. Wilbur used her medical credentials to aggressively promote a diagnosis that ultimately hurt women far more than it helped them and defined their conflicts as pathological and curable.

Though the three women shared in the canard, each had different reasons for maintaining and even adding to the charade. Mason feared losing Wilbur yet when she wrote a five-page confession letter admitting to the farce, the doctor treated the letter as a “metaphor” that showed Mason’s progress. Wilbur would not accept a recantation of her diagnosis of MPD or the most important patient of her career, not to mention of medical history. Mason’s case catapulted Wilbur into the notoriety she desired, she was rubbing elbows with important people and asked to speak at conferences. Wilbur knew this would be a groundbreaking experiment and understanding the disorder would establish her as one of the greatest professionals in her field.

When Sybil was published, Nathan argues that it was either a case of gross negligence on the part of Mason, Wilbur, and Schreiber or fraud. In addition to the diary collaboration with Mason, Wilbur withheld from Schreiber the knowledge that Mason suffered from pernicious anemia, a condition that may cause hallucinations, depression, anxiety, aching, weight loss, and confusion about identity, which were also many of Mason’s lifelong symptoms. Nathan handles her conjecture of the archived materials with great care to not force conclusions, such as a possible sexual relationship between doctor and patient, where the evidence is not available. Nathan narrates a well-argued case of how Wilbur completely failed her patient, how a doctor and journalist carried out professional fraud, unethical practices and negligence, and more remarkably how one modest young woman spun a little fib for attention into a diagnosis that turned psychiatry on its head and radically changed the course of therapy and culture.


In an interview found online, Nathan said that each woman was “in her own way brilliant, ambitious, damaged by the sexism of her time –and ruthless. Each was fractured.” She is clearly fascinated by the three women and what they did, but she also asks why the public “acceded so easily, so effervescently… what was going on in the 1970s that made us so grossly negligent of our common sense? Why did we want to believe a story as over the top as Sybil?” Nathan answers in the Epilogue. “The Sybil craze erupted during a splintered moment in history, when women pushed to go forward and the culture pulled back in fear.  Sybil, with her brilliant and traumatized multiplicity, became a language of our conflict, our idiom of distress.” There was the “headiness and equality of women’s liberation” but also the weight and pull of tradition. Women, who bought the book far more than men, resonated to the idea that stress could fracture the mind. All this made it possible for Mason, Wilbur, and Schreiber to concoct one of the largest, most shocking cases of deception in the twentieth century.



Nathan, Debbie. Sybil Exposed: the Extraordinary Story Behind the Famous

Multiple Personality Case. 1st Free Press hardcover ed. New York: Free,

  1. Print.

Smith, Kyle. “’sybil’ Is One Big Psych-Out.” New York Post. N.p., 15 Oct. 2011. Web. 11 Apr. 2012. <http://www.nypost.com/p/news/local/sybil_is_one_big_psych_out_NaIEczKkVakx8ZLLi7GQPI#ixzz1bA3UiApO>.

Neary, Lynn. “Real Sybil Admits Multiple Personalities Were Fake.” NPR.com. N.p., Oct. 2011. Web. 9 Apr. 2012. <http://www.npr.org/2011/10/20/141514464/real-sybil-admits-multiple-personalities-were-fake>.

Bosch, Torie. “Sybil Exposed by Debbie Nathan the Double x Book of the Week.” X Factor What Women Really Think. N.p., 11 Nov. 2011. Web. 9 Apr. 2012. <http://www.slate.com/blogs/xx_factor/2011/11/11/sybil_exposed_by_debbie_nathan_the_doublex_book_of_the_week_.html>.


Belva Davis Interview

Belva Davis Interview

The following is presented in magazine layout form embedded from Joomag. If you haven’t found this digital magazine flip yet, you should check them out. A wonderful addition to the creative journalist’s toolbox.